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聚合物老化传染行为研究

刘璇 杨睿

刘璇, 杨睿. 聚合物老化传染行为研究[J]. 功能高分子学报. doi: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.20210903001
引用本文: 刘璇, 杨睿. 聚合物老化传染行为研究[J]. 功能高分子学报. doi: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.20210903001
LIU Xuan, YANG Rui. Infection Behavior During Ageing of Polymers: A Review[J]. Journal of Functional Polymers. doi: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.20210903001
Citation: LIU Xuan, YANG Rui. Infection Behavior During Ageing of Polymers: A Review[J]. Journal of Functional Polymers. doi: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.20210903001

聚合物老化传染行为研究

doi: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.20210903001
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51673111)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘璇:刘 璇(1990−),女,博士,助理研究员,主要研究方向为高分子材料的老化及微量物证鉴定。E-mail:liuxuan61524@163.com

    通讯作者:

    杨 睿,E-mail:yangr@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O631.3

Infection Behavior During Ageing of Polymers: A Review

  • 摘要: 在聚合物共混物中,或多种聚合物在同一空间并用时,各聚合物或聚合物组分的老化过程相互影响,即为聚合物老化传染行为。这种聚合物老化传染行为使针对单一品种聚合物老化的研究结果往往不能用以准确预测实际使用中聚合物材料的寿命,是老化研究领域的重要课题。本文综述了聚合物老化传染行为的研究进展,重点阐明老化传染行为的典型表现形式:“接触式”传播和“非接触式”传染,对传染媒介的来源和作用机制进行分析,介绍老化传染行为在环境保护和文物保护领域的应用,总结聚合物老化传染研究面临的挑战并展望前景。

     

  • 图  1  抗冲击PP在110 °C下热氧老化形成的U形氧化分布曲线[6]

    Figure  1.  U-shaped oxidation distribution curve of impact PP during thermo-oxidative ageing at 110 °C [6]

    图  2  130 °C热处理3 000 h 后的宏观区域及其演变过程[13]

    Figure  2.  A macroscopic zone after 3 000 h of exposure at 130 °C and its evolution [13]

    图  3  PP老化传播模型示意图[15]

    Figure  3.  Scheme of ageing spreading model of PP [15]

    图  4  老化传播动力学各参数之间的关系[17]

    Figure  4.  Relationship among parameters of spreading kinetics of ageing[17]

    图  5  PP/PBT光氧老化机理[44]

    Figure  5.  Photooxidation mechanism for PP/PBT polymers [44]

    图  6  PP/PBT热氧老化机理[44]

    Φ: Benzeng ring; ZX: Two macromolecular chain radicals; PH: Polymer chain

    Figure  6.  Thermooxidation mechanism for PP/PBT polymers [44]

    图  7  气流挡板对PP氧化前锋移动的影响[29]

    Figure  7.  Effect of the gas barrier on the speed of the oxidation front in PP [29]

    图  8  PP颗粒相距(a) 100 μm和(b) 400 μm时150 °C氧化5.5 h的ICL图[12]

    Figure  8.  ICL of PP particles oxidized for 5.5 h at 150 °C separated by (a) 100 μm and (b) 400 μm [12]

    图  9  双热台化学发光检测系统示意图(左)和PP、HTPB的化学发光曲线(右)[62]

    Figure  9.  Scheme of system with photon emission and detection from two hot stages (Left); Chemiluminescence curves of PP and HTPB (Right) [62]

    图  10  PP与多种有机小分子共置光氧老化288 h的羰基指数(a. 对照组;b. PP+甲酸(FAC);c. PP+乙酸(HAC);d. PP+丙酸(PAC);e. PP+异丁酸(IAC);f. PP+十一烯酸(UAC);g. PP+丙烯酸(AA);h. PP+甲基丙烯酸(MAA);i. PP+丙烯酸甲酯(MA);j. PP+丙烯酸丁酯(BA);k. PP+甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA);l. PP+甲醛(FH);m. PP+乙醛(AH);n. PP+丙酮(CP);o. PP+丁酮(MEK);p. PP+乙醇(EA);q. PP+异丙醇(IPA);r. PP+正戊醇(NPEA);s. PP+异戊醇(IPEA))[97]

    Figure  10.  Carbonyl index of PP with various organic small molecules after photo-oxidative ageing for 288 h (a. Control; b. PP+FAC; c. PP+HAC; d. PP+PAC; e. PP+IAC; f. PP+UAC; g. PP+AA; h. PP+MAA; i. PP+MA; j. PP+BA; k. PP+MMA; l. PP+FH; m. PP+AH; n. PP+CP; o. PP+MEK; p. PP+EA; q. PP+IPA; r. PP+NPEA; s. PP+IPEA) [97]

    图  11  PP/PEO/TiO2UV照射下降解机理示意图[113]

    Figure  11.  Scheme of degradation mechanism for PP/PEO/TiO2 under UV irradiation [113]

    表  1  不同老化条件下PP释放的挥发性物质种类和数量

    Table  1.   Types and quantities of volatiles realeased by PP under different ageing conditions

    CompositionAgeing conditionCategoryNumber
    Isotactic polypropylene(iPP)[90]130 °C, thermo-oxidationAldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans26
    iPP [91]200 kGy Co-60 irradiation + oxygenAldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, olefins, alkanes, furans33
    Atactic polypropylene(aPP)[92]200 °C, thermo-oxidationAldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, olefins, alkanes23
    Commercial PP [93]Xenon lamp, photo-oxidationAldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, olefins, alkanes22
    PP + 0.22 % peroxides [94]250, 275 and 300°C, hot waterAldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, phenols20
    PP/hemp fiber composites [95]ISO 877-2: 2011Aldehyde, ketones, acids, alcohols, phenols,aliphatic hydrocarbons, furans, azines92
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